Orfordness/St. James's Day BattleAugust 27, 2010 0 Comments
Naval battle during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667). On 25 July 1665, St. James’ Day, an English fleet of 89 ships jointly commanded by Prince Rupert and George Monck, Duke of Albemarle, engaged a Dutch fleet of 88 ships under Michiel Adrianszoon de Ruyter stationed off the Thames estuary, 35 miles southeast of Orfordness.
The English held the weather gauge with a northerly wind, approaching the Dutch in line ahead with Sir Thomas Allin’s White squadron in the van, followed by the Red Squadron jointly led by Albemarle and Rupert, with Sir Jeremy Smith’s Blue squadron in the rear. The Dutch van under Jan Evertsen, center under de Ruyter, and rear under Cornelis Tromp were widely separated, and by 11:00 a.m. the three divisions of the fleet were engaging each other separately.
By 4:00 p.m. de Ruyter broke off the engagement. The English pursued through the following day, during which Tromp and Smith’s squadrons continued to engage. Tromp escaped on 27 July, as the Dutch van and center had the day previously. A Dutch fireship destroyed one English vessel, and the English captured and burned two Dutch ships. Their temporary control of the Dutch coast enabled Sir Robert Holmes to raid the Texel estuary on 8 August, destroying 150 ships
After the Dutch had inflicted considerable damage on the British fleet in the Four Days Battle, the leading Dutch politician, Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt, ordered Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter to carry out a plan that had been prepared for over a year: to land in the Medway to destroy the British fleet while it was being repaired in the Chatham dockyards. For this purpose, ten fluyt ships carried 2,700 marines of the newly-created Dutch Marine Corps, one of the first in history to be specialised in amphibious landings. Also, De Ruyter was to combine his fleet with the French one.
The French, however, didn't show up and bad weather prevented the landing. De Ruyter had to limit his actions to a blockade of the Thames. On the 1st of August, he observed that the British fleet was leaving port - earlier than expected. Then a storm drove the Dutch fleet back to the Flemish coast. On 3 July, De Ruyter again crossed the North Sea, leaving behind the troop ships.
In the early morning of 25 July, the Dutch fleet of 88 ships discovered the British fleet of 89 ships near North Foreland, sailing to the north, and pursued it from the southeast in a leeward position, as the wind blew from the northwest. Suddenly, the wind turned to the northeast. The commander of the British fleet, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, then turned sharply east to regain the weather gauge and De Ruyter followed to keep it. This proved to be a fatal manoeuvre for the Dutch. They now sailed right into the core of a high-pressure area. The Dutch van, commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Johan Evertsen, lost all speed and couldn't maintain a line of battle. This awkward situation lasted for hours; then, again, a soft breeze began to blow from the northeast. Immediately, the British van, commanded by Thomas Allin, and part of the centre formed a line of battle and sailed right to the Dutch van, still in disarray and basically defenseless. Ship after ship of the Frisian fleet was mauled by the combined fire power of the British line. Vice-Admiral Rudolf Coenders was killed. Lieutenant-Admiral Tjerk Hiddes de Vries had an arm and a leg shot off, yet still tried to bring cohesion to his forces, but to no avail. Unable to reach them with his centre, the horrified De Ruyter saw the Frisian ships drifting to the south, now no more than floating wrecks full of dead, the moans of the dying clearly audible above the other sounds of battle.
Now Rupert combined his full van and centre to deliver the coup-de-grâce to the Dutch centre. George Monck, accompanying Rupert, predicted that De Ruyter would give two broadsides and run, but the latter put up a furious fight on the Dutch flagship De Zeven Provinciën. He withstood a combined attack by Sovereign of the Seas and Royal Charles and forced Rupert to leave the damaged Royal Charles for Royal James. This way, De Ruyter managed to cover the retreat of the Dutch van.
Meanwhile, Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Tromp, commanding the Dutch rear, had seen the sad events evolve from a great distance. Annoyed by the lack of competence shown, he decided to give the correct example. He turned sharply to the west, crossed the line of the British rear, commanded by Jeremy Smith, separating it from the rest of the English fleet and then, having the weather gauge, kept on attacking it rabidly until, at last, the British were routed and fled to the west. He pursued well into the night, destroying Resolution with a fireship. After Tromp thrice shot the entire crew from its rigging, Smith's flagship Loyal London had to be towed home. The vice commander of the British rear was Edward Spragge, who felt so humiliated by the course of events that he became a personal enemy of Tromp, dying himself while trying to kill his foe in the Battle of Texel.
On the morning of 26 July, Tromp broke off pursuit, well-pleased with his first real victory as a squadron commander. During the night, a ship had brought him the message that De Ruyter had likewise been victorious, so Tromp was in a euphoric mood. That abruptly changed upon the discovery of the drifting flagship of the dying Tjerk Hiddes de Vries. Suddenly he feared that his ship was now the only remnant of the Dutch fleet and that he was in mortal peril. Behind him, those ships of the British rear still operational had again turned to the east. In front, the other enemy squadrons surely awaited him. On the horizon only English flags were to be seen. Manoeuvring wildly, Tromp, drinking a lot of gin to restore his nerve, dodged any attempt to trap him and brought his squadron safely home in the port of Flushing on the morning of 26 July. There, to great mutual relief, he discovered the rest of the Dutch fleet.
It took Tromp six hours to gather enough courage to face De Ruyter. It was obvious to him that he should never have allowed himself to get completely separated from the main force. Indeed De Ruyter, not being his usual charitable self, immediately blamed him for the defeat and ordered Tromp and his subcommanders Isaac Sweers and Willem van der Zaan from his sight, and told them to never again set foot on De Zeven Provinciën. The commander of the Dutch fleet still hadn't mentally recovered from the events of the previous day.
On the morning of 5 August, after a short summer's night, De Ruyter discovered that his position had become hopeless. Lieutenant-Admiral Johan Evertsen had died after losing a leg, De Ruyter's force was now reduced to about forty ships, crowding together and most of these were inoperational, being survivors of the van. Some fifteen good ships had apparently deserted during the night. A strong gale from the east prevented an easy retreat to the continental coast, and to the west the British van and centre (about fifty ships) surrounded him in a half-circle, safely bombarding him from a leeward position.
De Ruyter was desperate. When his second-in-command of the centre, Lieutenant-Admiral Aert Jansse van Nes visited him for a council of war, he exclaimed "With seven or eight against the mass!" He then sagged, mumbling: "What's wrong with us? I wish I were dead." His close personal friend Van Nes tried to cheer him up, joking: "Me too. But you never die when you want to!" No sooner had both men left the cabin than the table they had been sitting at was smashed by a cannonball.
The British, however, had their own problems. The strong gale prevented them from closing with the Dutch. They tried to use fire ships, but these, too, had trouble reaching the enemy. Only the sloop Fan-Fan, Rupert's personal pleasure yacht, rowed to the Dutch flagship De Zeven Provinciën to harass it with its two little guns, much to the hilarious laughter of the Dutch crews.
When his ship had again warded off an attack by a fire ship (the Land of Promise) and Tromp still didn't show up, for De Ruyter tension became unbearable. He sought death, exposing himself deliberately on the deck. When he failed to be hit, he exclaimed: "Oh, God, how unfortunate I am! Amongst so many thousands of cannonballs, is there not one that would take me?" His son-in-law, Captain of the Marines Johann de Witte, heard him and said: "Father, what desperate words! If you merely want to die, let us then turn, sail in the midst of our enemies and fight ourselves to death!". This brave but foolish proposal brought the Admiral back to his senses, for he discovered that he wasn't so desperate and answered: "You don't know what you are talking about! If I did that, all would be lost. But if I can bring myself and these ships safely home, we'll finish the job later."
Then the wind, that in this battle had brought so much misfortune to the Dutch, saved them by turning to the west. They formed a line of battle and brought their fleet to safety through the Flemish shoals, Vice-Admiral Adriaen Banckert of the Zealandic fleet covering the retreat of all damaged ships with the operational vessels, the number of the latter slowly growing as it turned out that only very few ships had actually deserted in the night; most had merely drifted away, and now, one after the other, they rejoined the battle.
The battle was a clear English victory, though the separate clash of the two rears was a victory for Tromp. Dutch casualties were enormous, estimated immediately after the battle at about 5,000 men, compared with 300 British killed; later, more precise information showed that only about 1,200 of these had been killed or seriously wounded. However, the Dutch only lost two ships: De Ruyter had been successful at saving almost the complete van, only Sneek and Tholen struck their flag, and they could quickly repair the damage. The twin disasters of the Great Plague of London and the Great Fire of London, however, combined with his financial mismanagement, left Charles II without the funds to continue the war. In fact, he had had only enough reserves for this one last battle. The Dutch soon recovered; within a month, they again took sea, but only a minor skirmish resulted. During this later fight, De Ruyter inhaled a burning fuse filament that burnt a fistula in his throat; he would recover just in time to inflict a severe blow on the English navy in the Raid on the Medway in 1667, when, at last, he could carry out the plan he was prevented from executing in 1666.
During the weeks that the Dutch fleet was in repair, Admiral Robert Holmes, aided by the Dutch traitor Laurens van Heemskerck, penetrated the Vlie estuary, burnt a fleet of 150 merchants (Holmes's Bonfire) and sacked the town of Ter Schelling (the present West-Terschelling) on the Frisian island of Terschelling. Fan-Fan was again present.
In the Republic, the defeat also had far-reaching political effect. Tromp was the champion of the Orangist party; now that he was accused of severe negligence, the country split over this issue. To defend himself, Tromp let his brother-in-law Johan Kievit publish an account of his conduct. Shortly afterwards, Kievit was discovered to have planned a coup, secretly negotiating a peace treaty with the English king. He fled to England and was condemned to death in absentia; Tromp's family was fined and he himself forbidden to serve on the fleet. In November 1669 a supporter of Tromp tried to stab De Ruyter in the entrance hall of his house. Only in 1672 Tromp would have his revenge, when Johan de Witt was murdered; some claim Tromp has had a hand in this. The new ruler, William III of Orange, succeeded, with great difficulty, in reconciling De Ruyter with Tromp in 1673.
Hainsworth, Roger, and Christine Churches. The Anglo-Dutch Naval Wars, 1652–1674. Phoenix Mill, Stroud, UK: Sutton, 1998.
Jones, J. R. The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the Seventeenth Century. New York: Longman Publishing, 1996.
Kitson, Frank. Prince Rupert: Admiral and General-at-Sea. London: Constable & Company, 1998.
Brandt, Gerard (1687), Het Leven en bedryf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter (1st ed.), Uitgeverij van Wijnen, Franeker